© 2017 by Luleå University of Technology

The Geological Survey of Finland

3D modeling is used in GTK in various fields of geology from modeling of Precambrian bedrock to engineering geology and to modeling of surficial deposits. Hence a broad array of different software is used in different tasks.

Used 3D/4D modelling software:

- Paradigm Gocad with Mira Geoscience Mining Suite:

Used dominantly in target to regional scale modeling of Precambrian bedrock and mineral deposits. Software is considered highly suitable especially in regional and sub-regional scale modeling. Versatile in handling different data and unsurpassed in handling reflection seismic data.

 - Geovia Surpac:

Dominantly used in mineral resource modelling and target to regional scale modeling of Precambrian bedrock. Good geostatistical tools for block modeling of mineral deposits. Also commonly used by exploration and mining sector in Finland.

 - Geosoft Oasis:

Used in geophysical interpretation and calculations including 2-3D interpolation of geophysical data.

 - BGS Groundhog:

Used in modeling surficial deposits and groundwater

- Interpid Geomodeller:

Used in geophysical applications including 1-3D inversions of geophysical data


Other modeling software used in GTK: ArcScene, Geovia Gems, GeoVision, ISATIS (Geovariances), Midland Valley MOVE, Target for ArcGIS

Recent/ongoing projects:

- Lapland mineral systems and exploration models project (2014-2015):

Lapland mineral systems and exploration models project was a research and development project with aims to broaden 3D modeling know-how in the Northern Finland office of the GTK, produce regional and camp-scale 3D models of selected areas and develop geophysical interpretation methods to support the modeling. Project resulted a number of camp- to regional scale 3D models of Precambrian bedrock and mineral deposits of Northen Finland.

- Developing Mine Camp Exploration Concepts and Technologies - ‘Brownfield exploration’ (2013-2016):

The aims were to develop exploration concepts and technologies in mine camps and other previously explored crystalline rock areas. The present technological possibilities allow mapping the bedrock to depths of several kilometers using seismic reflection, magnetotellurics, airborne ZTEM and potential field methods. Aim was to use these methods to compile and further develop Common Earth Models of the subsurface based on its elastic, electric, density and magnetic properties. In a combination of coeval geophysical and geological modeling the deep exploration is improved by using an iterative multidisciplinary approach. Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn ore belt, Finland, was used as a case to demonstrate the exploration concept development and novel applications of deep data acquisition and modeling. The project was carried out by GTK and the Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki. The project was funded by Tekes Green Mining program and co-funded by FinnAust Mining Plc, Boliden Kylylahti, Mondo Mineral B.V. Branch Finland, and JOSEK Oy. Final report can be downloaded at: http://tupa.gtk.fi/julkaisu/specialpaper/sp_059.pdf

- GECCO project (2015-2019):

Project Gecco aims to advance the Common Earth Model (CEM) concept in mineral exploration by utilizing high performance computing in geomodelling of heterogeneous areas where limitations of computing power have previously prevented the use of detailed CEM grids with e.g. unconstrained meshes and the use of all available information simultaneously. This project combines expertise in high performance computing and geomodelling, and aims to develop tools for faster geological modelling in an effective computing environment. The two test areas Mullikkoräme near Pyhäsalmi Cu-Zn mine and Vuonos from Outokumpu mining area, Finland, will be used. Project is done in Geological survey of Finland, co-operation partners are Åbo Akademi, University of Western Australia, Geological Survey of Norway, Upsala University and Pyhäsalmi Mine Oy. Project is financed by Academy of Finland.

- XSODEX (2017-2018):

Experiment of Sodankylä Deep Exploration (XSODEX) project will produce a geological 3D exploration model within the active mineral exploration area in Sodankylä, northern Finland. This model estimates the possibilities of deeply seated mineral deposits beneath the surface of bedrock. Deep structures of the earth are investigated with audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) measurements and with seismic reflection surveys down to the depths exceeding 3 km. Integrated interpretation of AMT and seismic data enable the 3D-modeling of the structures of the bedrock, and usage of the geological structural model in later ore exploration. The project is coordinated by Geological Survey of Finland and is done in collaboration with Oulu Mining School of the University of Oulu and Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg.


Dr. Tero Niiranen

The Geological Survey of Finland